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30 Dec 2020

10: 21–25. 1981. Malcomber, S.T., Preston, J.C., Reinheimer, R., Kossuth, J., Kellogg, E.A. 2014. 1934. All of the aboveground section of a grass is collectively called the shoot. Curr. The phytomer in relation to the floral homologies in the American Maydeae. Evol. Grass architecture: genetic and environmental control of branching. The Gramineae: a study of cereal, bamboo, and grass. Sobre politelia en las inflorescencias de Poaceae. Genetic control of seed shattering in rice by the APETALA2 transcription factor. Li, M., Tang, D., Wang, K., Wu, X., Lu, L., Yu, H., Gu, M., Yan, C., Cheng, Z. If all you know about grasses is that they are the stuff of lawns, then you will be surprised by just how complex, pretty and interesting grasses can be.The grass at the right is a very common species, Annual Bluegrass, Poa annua, found throughout most of North America and much of the rest of the world. Early inflorescence development in the grasses (Poaceae). Acad. Chuck, G., Meeley, R., Hake, S. 1998. The growth patterns and number of spikelets, furthermore, define inflorescence architecture and yield. 9: e1003604. When the spikelets are attached by means of … Overexpression of, Nalam, V.J., Vales, M.I., Watson, C.J.W., Johnson, E.B., Riera-Lizarazu, O. Kellogg, E.A. Amer. Biol. The grass inflorescence is striking not only for its beauty and diversity, but also for its developmental complexity. Zhang, L., Zhao, Y.-L., Gao, L.-F., Zhao, G.-Y., Zhou, R.-H., Zhang, B.-S., Jia, J.-Z. Parts of a typical grass (based on Bromus). 2005. Genetics and evolution of grass inflorescence and flower development. 2005. Gene networks controlling the initiation of flower development. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying spikelet development and evolution are attractive to both … Plant Phys. corolla. Reproductive development of the apex of. Wills, D.M., Whipple, C.J., Takuno, S., Kursel, L.E., Shannon, L.M., Ross-Ibarra, J., Doebley, J.F. Amer. 2008. A TCP transcription factor, Baumel, A., Ainouche, M.L., Bayer, R.J., Ainouche, A.K., Misset, M.T. 2002. 159: 550–558. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. J. Bot. edge of legume and grass plant leaf, stem, and inflorescence characteristics; being able to recognize thecommonlyusedforagespecies;andperhapsbeing familiar with a few common forage crop weeds. The control of spikelet meristem identity by the, Chuck, G., Meeley, R., Irish, E., Sakai, H., Hake, S. 2007. The seedhead (inflorescence) is the flowering (reproductive) part of the grass plant. Proc. 2006. (ed.) 12:17. Arber, A. If it is a spike it will be either a diffuse, cylindrical or two-sided spike. 1997. The BMs initiate the SMs, which then initiate the FMs. Gallavotti, A., Yang, Y., Schmidt, R.J., Jackson, D. 2008. 2000. J. Agric. Zou, L., Sun, X., Zhang, Z., Liu, P., Wu, J., Tian, C., Qiu, J., Lu, T. 2011. A trehalose metabolic enzyme controls inflorescence architecture in maize. Spikelet. Monocots SQUAMOSA-PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN 1 initiates flowering in, Preston, J.C., Kellogg, E.A. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO. Rev. Stevens, P.F. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. 2002. Flowers of Poaceae are characteristically arranged in spikelets, each having one or more florets. Natl. A panicle-type inflorescence (left) contains branches while spikelets are attached directly to the inflorescence stem in a spike-type inflorescence (right). flower calyx. Larson, S.R., Kellogg, E.A. Panicle, spikelet, and floret development in orchardgrass (. 96: 1419–1429. Architecture of floral branch systems in maize and related grasses. Preston, J.C., Wang, H., Doebley, J., Kellogg, E.A. A flower (floret) contains a lemma, palea, lodicules, stamens and a pistil. Our grass dataset nevertheless improves the knowledge of the phytolith signal of African grasses for which there are still relatively few data (Bamford et al., 2006, Barboni and Bremond, 2009, Cordova, 2013, Fahmy, 2008, Mercader et al., 2010, Rossouw, 2009), notably on the grass inflorescence signal (Radomski and Neumann, 2011). Shitsukawa, N., Kinjo, H., Takumi, S., Murai, K. 2009. Malcomber, S.T., Kellogg, E.A. Inflorescence architecture and floral morphology vary extensively within the Poaceae, but the functional significance of this variation remains largely unknown. Plant Phys. New York: Academic Press. Feddes Repert. A spikelet is subtended by a pair of suppressed leaves called glumes. 2007. 1940. Mechanisms of floral induction in grasses: something borrowed, something new. Forma de crecimiento en. Brown, P.J., Klein, P.E., Bortiri, E., Acharya, C.B., Rooney, W.L., Kresovich, S. 2006. Mus. An axis with spikelets on pedicels is called a raceme (e.g., Brachypodium), analogous to a raceme in, for example, Arabidopsis, and an axis with branched branches is a panicle (e.g., Oryza, Avena, Panicum s.s., and many others), and so forth. Doust, A.N. 28: 2147–2159. 2007. Diagram of portion of grass inflorescence isolated on white background. Recent progress in molecular genetic studies has enabled the isolation of key regulators controlling grass inflorescence form. Thompson, B.E., Hake, S. 2009. The structures containing the flowers are called SPIKELETS. Preston, J.C., Christensen, A., Malcomber, S.T., Kellogg, E.A. Curr. These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. Moncur, M.W. 2011. Nature 436: 714–719. Zeevaart, J.A.D. The synflorescence of Poaceae. Reproductive morphology of the early-divergent grass. Monocots: systematics and evolution. 2008. Opinion Pl. Danilevskaya, O.N., Meng, X., Hou, Z.L., Ananiev, E.V., Simmons, C.R. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Institute of Applied Agriculture Recommended for you. The spikelets are further grouped into panicles or spikes. legume corolla. 75: 377–396. Lee, D.Y., An, G. 2012. As grasses are wind‐pollinated, their inflorescence diversity probably reflects alternate solutions to manipulating airstreams to … 2005. Stapleton, C.M.A. Plant Phys. —3. Inflorecence scheme and floral diagram. Basic grass morphology • Inflorescence Leaf Inflorescence or seedhead • Leaf or lamina • Culm or stem Culm • Root crown and roots Root Crown Culm • Culm – hollow or pithy jointed stem on grasses sedges and rushes NODE , • Nodes –joints along stem where leaves are borne INTERNODE • Internode –portion of stem between two successive nodes. 55: 787–797. Bai, F., Reinheimer, R., Durantini, D., Kellogg, E.A., Schmidt, R.J. 2012. Structure of the grass inflorescence. 2003. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO. Science 309: 741–745. sepals. Curr. 46: 69–78. Kojima, S., Takahashi, Y., Kobayashi, Y., Monna, L., Sasaki, T., Araki, T., Yano, M. 2002. Inflorescence typology in, Giulini, A., Wang, J., Jackson, D. 2004. Science 311: 1936–1939. Simons, K.J., Fellers, J.P., Trick, H.N., Zhang, Z., Tai, Y.-S., Gill, B.S., Faris, J.D. … © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Konishi, S., Izawa, T., Lin, S.Y., Ebana, K., Fukuta, Y., Sasaki, T., Yano, M. 2006. Die Infloreszenzen, Typologie und Stellung im Aufbau des Vegetationskörpers. 2009. New York: Academic Press. Cytokinins: activity, biosynthesis, and translocation. 2014. Kobayashi, K., Yasuno, N., Sato, Y., Yoda, M., Yamazaki, R., Kimizu, M., Yoshida, H., Nagamura, Y., Kyozuka, J. Peterson, P.M., Romaschenko, K., Herrera Arrieta, Y., Saarela, J.M. New York: Macmillan. The maize, Chuck, G., Meeley, R., Hake, S. 2008. 94: 1230–1247. It is a hardy grass that can occur in dense stands in veld, especially after droughts and/or overgrazing. Cite as. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available, Flowering Plants. The structure of the paracladial zone in Poaceae. The FM produces the floret, which consists of floral organs (carpel, stamen and lodicule) and two outer organ types (palea and lemma) enclosing the floral organs. J. Bot. 2011. Ikeda, K., Nagasawa, N., Nagato, Y. FRIZZY PANICLE is required to prevent the formation of axillary meristems and to establish floral meristem identity in rice spikelets. Kellogg, E.A., Camara, P.E.A.S., Rudall, P.J., Ladd, P., Malcomber, S.T., Whipple, C.J., Doust, A.N. Weberling, F. 1989. Beyond taxonomy: prospects for understanding morphological diversity in the grasses (Poaceae). An SNP caused loss of seed shattering during rice domestication. 11: 541–547. 2012. 2009. Two AP2 family genes. 2010. Le Roux, L.G., Kellogg, E.A. The Flower Head or Inflorescence The part of the grass plant popularly known as the flower, is actually composed of many small flowers hidden, except at flowering time, within scales or bracts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 57: 431–449. Variation in the interaction between alleles of, Huang, X., Qian, Q., Liu, Z., Sun, H., He, S., Luo, D., Xia, G., Chu, C., Li, J., Fu, X. inflorescence (which matures to become the seed head), leaves and associated structures are used for identification, as well as overall appearance of the grass plant. 1989. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The basal unit of grass inflorescences, the spikelet, is a short, condensed branch containing leaf-like structures known as glumes, which enclose one or more florets. Inflorescence structure directly affects the yield of grain crops. 1 – glume, 2 – lemma, 3 – awn, 4 – palea, 5 – lodicules, 6 – stamens, 7 – ovary, 8 – styles. Flora 191: 231–234. Theor. There are two parts to a grass leaf. 2004. Bommert, P., Satoh-Nagasawa, N., Jackson, D., Hirano, H.Y. Grass Weeds - Part 1 - Duration: 8:39. Inflorescence diversity and evolution in the PCK clade (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae). Mutations in the F-box gene. Collar (Orchard Grass) Reed Canary Grass. Bot. The spikelet is a unique structure of inflorescence in grasses that generates one to many flowers depending on its determinate or indeterminate meristem activity. 101: 1759–1769. 1999. Yan, L., Loukolanov, A., Tranquilli, G., Helguera, M., Fahima, T., Dubcovsky, J. Morphological diversity and genetic regulation of inflorescence abscission zones in grasses. By definition a grass spikelet is the unit of the inflorscence of a grass, a member of the Poaceae or Gramineae family of plants. 19: 1–32. USA 105: 12915–12920. 275: 133–167. Wiley Online Library. Gallavotti, A., Long, J.A., Stanfield, S., Yang, X., Jackson, D., Vollbrecht, E., Schmidt, R.J. 2010. 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